Without the ability to superheat or a modern knowledge of chemistry, all crafting techniques had to make use of trial and error to work metals, gems, and other valuables.
- Filigree: Twisted gold or silver wire soldered together or to the surface of an object and arranged artistically.
- Granular Work: Gold Beading.
- Grille: The setting of enamel into grilles to produce ornamental studs.
- Millefiori: A glasswork technique involving the production of glass rods or canes with multicolored patterns. The rod is pulled in a furnace until thin while maintaining the cross-section's design. When the glass is cooled it is cut into beads.
- Pressblech: The use of thin foils stamped with a die from the back.